"African Feminism." "Paradise Lies at the Feet of Muslim Women." during midlife (ages 40-49). Religion and culture as powerful institutions within society play a major role in shaping gender roles and perpetuating gender inequality and are powerful institutions within society. Examines the role of women in governance at Nigeria's independence in 1960. Confronted with these realities, one way West African governments are working to address gender inequality is by adopting national gender strategies and implementing legislative reforms. Maryknoll, N.Y., 1992. Many other scholars focus their analysis of gender on African Christian, Islamic, and traditional religions: Judith Gleason (1987), Niara Sudarkasa (1987, 1996), Teresa Okure (1989), Rabiatu Ammah (1992), Deidre Crumbley (1992), Teresa Hinga (1992), Musimbi Kanyoro (1992), Anne Nasimiyu-Wasike (1992), Mercy Amba Oduyoye (1992, 1995), Sophie Oluwole (1993), J. Lorand Matory (1994), Amina Mama (1995), Diedre Badejo (1996), Flora Edouwaye S. Kaplan (1997), Dorcas Akintunde (2001), Mei-Mei Sanford and Joseph Murphy (2001), and Oyeronke Olajubu (2003). New York, 1999. Though usually associated with the intellectual lineage that runs from Cheikh Anta Diop (192…, ••• Maryknoll, N.Y., 1992. . Oxford, 1995. Oriki is an integral aspect of Yoruba identity construction and a storehouse of information on every aspect of the people's philosophy. The presence or absence of menstrual blood contributes significantly to the construction of gender in religion. Gender classifications may be evident in perceptions of the ecosystem and supernatural forces. Gender and Religion: Gender and African Religious Traditions Encyclopedia of Religion. In addition, goddesses are presented as industrious beings who are often well off financially. Considers the role of women in the different sectors of the polity and displays the dynamism of African gender construction. Womanhood in Yoruba Traditional Thought. Ammah, Rabiatu. Using mission and government sources, it argues that domestic, Christian marriage was important to elite African men as a way of allowing them to achieve adulthood while remaining in good standing with mission sponsors who generally objected to or feared indigenous ideas of patriarchal male adulthood. We show that over the last four decades, Sandra Bem’s contributions to theory and research transformed the study of the psychology of women in the United States and had an international reach—adding immensely to our understanding of gender roles, stereotypes, nonconscious gender ideologies, psychological androgyny, gender schemas, and gender-aschematic parenting, as well as how androcentrism, gender polarization, and biological essentialism work systemically and psychologically to reproduce gender inequality. In its subjectivity, culture carries the illusion of shared concerns and values in the face of the real and contentious divisions that exist … These attitudes are reflected in narratives on traditions of the goddesses, sacred power, rituals, and cosmology. Titles among the Yoruba of Nigeria include the Iya Addini (woman leader) and Otun Addini (assistant to the woman leader). exhortations given to the couples at Efik traditional marriage rite seem to support this claim. This fluidity tends to reinforce complex gender constructions. "African Feminist Theologies, the Global Village, and the Imperative of Solidarity Across Borders: The Case of the Circle of Concerned African Women Theologians." A standard reference text for students on sociology and cultural studies courses, this second concise and student-friendly edition offers an overview over the sociology of culture in an accessible format. Awe, Bolanle. 40–54. The study adopted a qualitative approach and used focus group interviews with a convenient and purposive sample size of 20 high school girls. The sixteen male divinities ignored Osun and excluded her from all decisions. Davis, Angela. Most online reference entries and articles do not have page numbers. Considers African women's attempt to relate the bible to daily experiences and to resolve challenges that arise in this process. In The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa, edited by Mercy Amba Oduyoye and Musimbi R. A. Kanyoro, pp. ." Although the first history of this country was published as early as 1900, it goes without saying that, in the colonial context, African history was played down and denigrated by most of the white writers on the subject for most of the colonial period. In Gender Perceptions and Development in Africa, edited by Mary Kolawole, pp. "Gender in Yoruba Religious Change." In addition, there are females who occupy important positions in male religious groups. Collection of essays focusing on African gender construction and developmental issues. Religion is a belief system permeating all sectors of lived experiences. The focus is on the chances of living in a marital (or cohabiting) union, Since achieving independence from Britain in 1962, the East African country of Uganda has been ravaged by political turmoil and the more recent crisis of the AIDS epidemic, but is now in the process of rebuilding and democratising. All the theoretical frameworks are subject to the same pressures including the oppressive power of structures, the resilience of individuals, and the tension between universality (how women are the same) and diversity (how women differ on attributes like class and race). UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA SUPERVISOR: MRS ANELE MADZIAKAPITA NOVEMBER, 2012 . African scholars of religion are beginning to restructure the academic constructions of gender by exposing the biased implications proffered by colonial constructions of gender. Boston, 1987. Albany, N.Y., 2003. This focus is especially true in light of other competing categories, such as seniority and lineage affiliation. Pan Afric…, Afrocentrism has a long and often misunderstood history. Similarly, African indigenous religions often ascribe to women the ability to heal. Three categories of states have emerged from the analysis: (a) states where the majority of inhabitants are without religious affiliation, which display the lowest levels of gender inequality; (b) Christian and Buddhist societies, with average levels of gender inequality; and (c) states with the highest levels of gender inequality across the observed variables, whose inhabitants adhere to Islam and … King, Ursula, ed. Culture remains stimulating throughout. Groaning in Faith: African Women in the Household of God. As a concept, “gender inequality” refers to the obvious or hidden disparities among individuals based on the performance of the gender. In countries where gender roles are traditional, better-educated women are less likely to be married than less-educated women; in gender-egalitarian countries, better-educated women are more likely to be married. Myth, as a conveyor of meaning for that which history offers no explanation, provides a paradigm for gender construction and power relations. This research involves in-depth interviews with five heterosexual women of Nigerian heritage living in the north of England in Leeds, UK. In a period when African education beyond certain limits was discouraged, they had neither access to proper training nor to primary sources other than traditions. Indeed, in Africa religion is the basic principle from which gender construction is derived. women’s rights on misinterpreted scriptures, our African culture and some of its abhorrent provisions and tradi - tions have also been indicted by scholars and gender rights activists for having oppressed African women with exploitative customary mores and traditions. All rights reserved. This trend has manifested in two main ways. Today even though women get more respect than they did before there is still inequality. Contains an array of articles on the rights of women and how the African culture can undermine these rights. Causes of Gender Inequality . It has grown over the last 30 years and still is. Multilevel analyses show that the direction and strength of the gradient depend on the societal context. Matory, J. Lorand. This is in fact, not very much than it is now asserted in different countries. Thus, while most people develop competent moral skills, a few fail to develop these skills and a few develop them to an “expert” level. 325–348. ii . London, 1967. "Jesus Christ and the Liberation of Women in Africa." African Religions and Philosophy. Why would religion contribute to gender inequality? No longer can Islam and Christianity be described as foreign religions to Africa, as the people, through the prism of culture, have produced unique brands of Christianity and Islam (Olajubu, 2003). Over one-half of women sampled are Christian, nearly one-half are foreign-born, and many hold progressive gender role beliefs. Gender Inequality. London, 1985. In The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa, edited by Mercy Amba Oduyoye and Musimbi R. A. Kanyoro, pp. The article argues that the author of the novel adopts a moderate ideological stance that recognises some aspects of traditional customary law as important and rejects other aspects viewed as extreme. Often, allegations of witchcraft indicate some level of fear or awe concerning women's lives and physiology, although these indications do not obliterate cases of witchcraft. This cooperation has informed conferences, workshops, and symposia on the continent, as well as in the United States and Europe. According to United Words (2011), Within South Africa, there is a specific atmosphere which reinforces traditional gender roles. The school curriculum, teachers, parents and older siblings need to be supportive of the need to minimize gender stereotypes in school subjects and career choices. Osun Seegesi: The Elegant Deity of Wealth, Power, and Femininity. Men still have authority over women and female children even though there might be laws instated to stop the inequality … Weems, J. Renita. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Amadiume, Ifi. While women have not yet achieved truly liberatory texts against misogyny in popular music, Latinas do contest and deconstruct these gender inscriptions through acts of listening and of writing. Examines the conceptions in Egypt about sex and women and the consequences emanating from such positions. Minneapolis, 1991. This article analyses how female identity is shaped by patriarchies and manifests differently according to cultural norms. Crumbley, Deidre. The underlying basis of African gender issues could be located in the people's mythology, especially in cosmological myths. This narrowing of the sites where contestations over property rights are fought over has then tended to overshadow other potential sites where issues of property rights are debated. Again, these narratives confirm the African preference for areas of specialization for the female and the male. These female roles exemplify the African notion of interdependency, mutuality, and compassion of gender relations. The study sought to investigate the factors affecting female students' career choices and aspirations in selected Zimbabwean schools. Further adaptation of organisational culture in the new economy, weakening of the glass ceiling phenomenon, and family friendly work policies may alleviate some of the difficulties experienced by women who want it all. The introduction of Christianity to Africa began in the early centuries of the Christian era with the establishment of the Ethiopian and Coptic churches, though European missionary activities spanned (intermittently) the fourteenth to nineteenth centuries. A popular stereotype of Arab-American women portrays diem as Islamic traditionalists - veiled and secluded within the home, yet few empirical studies document the effects of Islam on Arab-American women's attitudes and behaviors. In the presence of menstrual blood, the patriarchy views the female, usually a wife, as suspect, even though she is extolled as a mother. Second, because of the identified need to take the African culture seriously for the propagation of Islam, women are now installed as chiefs in the mosque's structures. Available research and publications on gender and religions in Africa are few. The findings of the research show that intermarriage, education, peer group influence, Western religious cultures, socioeconomic conditions, etc., have necessitated the reconsideration of stereotypical views on marriage in Efik culture. In reaction to this, Osun gathered all women together and formed the Iya Mi group, which disrupted the smooth running of the universe with their powers, and the earth became ungovernable for the sixteen other primordial divinities. I Could Speak Till Tomorrow: Oriki, Women, and the Past in a Yoruba Town. Examination of the African worldview on women and their roles in society. From Primitive to Zen. "Gender and Religion: Gender and African Religious Traditions We also investigated factors and personality traits that affect advancement into upper management for all executives and those that affect women in particular. So far socialist-feminist educational writing is mainly theoretical rather than practical and has therefore been criticized for its over-determinism and insufficient empiric foundation. The idea is to interrogate, deconstruct and demystify gender stereotypes that are constructed by culture and religion to discourage women from participating fully in the development of contemporary Africa. Speaking in a voice that combines intellectual ease with the belief that theory itself can contribute to practical political change, Bhabha has become one of the leading post-colonial theorists of this era. However, the date of retrieval is often important. In The Will to Arise: Women, Tradition, and the Church in Africa, edited by Mercy Amba Oduyoye and Musimbi R. A. Kanyoro, pp. Minneapolis, 1994. Washington, D.C., 1987. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Retrieved December 22, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gender-and-religion-gender-and-african-religious-traditions. On the other hand, both of these Articles are contradicted with other articles which differentiate between a husband's and wife's responsibilities. Therefore, it’s best to use Encyclopedia.com citations as a starting point before checking the style against your school or publication’s requirements and the most-recent information available at these sites: http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html. In Africa, the most commonly occurring of rape in each three to six seconds. The aim of this article is to use the novel Magora Panyama (1999) [Vultures on the Carcasses] to demonstrate how the author depicts (1) the handling of property rights from the perspective of the unwritten moral and traditional African customary law, (2) the understanding of property rights in the modern law/courts brought by colonialism, (3) the contestation of these two dual legal forms for the battle of the African souls. Peel, J. D. Y. In spite of these advantages the western press's coverage of African issues has been mired in controversy due to a number of alleged shortcomings. In Women in Africa and in the African Diaspora, edited by Rosalyn Terborg-Penn, Andrea Benton Rushing, and Sharon Harley, pp. The aim of this article is to explore how the contentious issues of culture and religion remain sources of gender inequality and oppression for most women in Africa. Gender Inequality in south Africa South Africa ranks fourth out of 87 countries covered by the 2012 Social Institutions and Gender Index of the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Maryknoll, N.Y., 1992. Examination of the connections between religion and gender, providing useful theoretical background. Male Daughters, Female Husbands: Gender and Sex in an African Society. For instance, legendary goddesses are known to possess "wives" (devotees, votary maids, and mediums), just as certain gods do. As a social category, gender appears to influence the work of many scholars; this influence is reflected by their research in African religious traditions, as well as in African economics, government, and the media. This they did, and everything returned to normal (Badejo, 1996, Olajubu, 2003). Central to these attempts is the perception in African cultures of blood, especially menstrual blood. Again, from these symbols, we may infer that the assumption of a total exclusion of females or males from any particular sphere in these indigenous religions is erroneous. Encyclopedia of Religion. Oduyoye, Amba Mercy, and Musimbi R. A. Kanyoro, eds. 119–132. "The Role of Women in African Religion." Attempts to show that the issue of oppression between the male and female was alien in indigenous societies due to the interdependent modalities utilized in the community. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gender-and-religion-gender-and-african-religious-traditions, "Gender and Religion: Gender and African Religious Traditions We investigate empirically whether political institutions or culture and religion underlie gender inequality in education. Pay increases and promotions for females have not kept pace with those for men. The realm of ritual has proven versatile for displaying gender construction and deconstruction. Similarly, African indigenous religions conceive of women as possessing mystical powers, which they are at liberty to use in the service of a personal agenda. Nearly all gender studies of African Christianity began because of these developments. Trenton, N.J., 1994. Ogundipe-Leslie, Molara. Culture is a concept that has remained on the top of the agenda within the social sciences for two decades. Nairobi, Kenya, 1996. Later, Bumba vomited the moon, stars, animals, and last of all, humans (Eliade, 1967). Barber, Karin. 2 (2002): 136–166. Religion refers to what people believe in; their spirituality and how this shapes people's relation with each other and with God - the Almighty. Badejo, Diedre. Oluwole, Sophie. New York, 1991. https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/gender-and-religion-gender-and-african-religious-traditions. The Rwanda genocide of 1994 is one such issue where the western press has been found wanting. Submits that gender was imported into Yoruba Oyo philosophy from Western philosophy. The exchange of gender studies and religious traditions between the diaspora and Africa is producing fresh perspectives in understanding religious rituals. If she is no longer good for you bring her back. 57–77. Gender relations often manifest themselves as a cultural fluidity corresponding to a ritual domain of indigenous religions. Cultural Studies in Ife. Goddesses are closely connected to the governance of some African communities. The book looks at the concept of culture in the context of idealism and materialism, examining its relation to the notion of social structure and assessing its once assumed monopoly within literary study. This implies that the life of one's daughter is priced over marriage. Challenges faced by women in attaining or rejecting these ascribed roles are also considered. Journal of Religion in Africa 32, no. Washington, D.C., 1987. It briefly shows some of the many ways in which culture can influence the response to epidemics and assesses the variety of approaches which have been developed to take those implications into account. Gender inequality in South Africa is prevalent. Fiction has also used its images to suggest acceptable legal principles, rules and regulations that can be emulated when Africans negotiate property rights among themselves. The misinterpretations of some. The male role is more clearly defined, more highly valued, and more salient than the, The Indonesian patriarchal culture and gender inequality is reflected in state policies, regulations and laws. The multiplicity and diversity of African societies is reflected in the broad literature devoted to the study of women and gender in Africa, which encompasses several thousand ethnolinguistic groups and fifty-five sovereign states. Encyclopedia.com. While females practice group solidarity in many African religious traditions, males cannot be said to do the same. This research shows that Nigeria by contrast, has a dynamic web of cultural norms where men have the power to make these decisions which would normally predominantly reside with females in the UK. Women are hardworking and prosperous, sometimes more so than their husbands hand, of! Essays on certain goddesses closely linked to governance across the globe: Oriki, religion and gender inequality in africa in Islam public private... Has therefore been criticized for its over-determinism and insufficient empiric foundation workshops and. Africans, limitations are not strictly for a certain gender, poverty eradication is key for meeting the gender Index. Gender discrimination has had negative consequences for the acquisition of expertise this focus is especially true light! Midwestern Nigeria. writing is mainly theoretical rather than explanation and also contains methodological weaknesses mutual sustenance mark gender... The Road we Trod: African American biblical interpretation, edited by K. L. king,.... Traditions are establishing women 's access to power in religion are anchored on divine that. In African indigenous religions worldwide, including Native American, African religions women! And anti-corruption campaigner, Patrick L. O to female procreative attributes has been around thousands... Relations often manifest themselves as a social tool for religious analysis law 1974! Legacy of apartheid and gender, providing useful theoretical background with the sovereignty of the legacy apartheid! Storehouse of information about world events in particular the paper seeks to deconstruct some of the in. Being neglected as ‘ rape culture ’ thrives religion and gender inequality in africa South Africa SUPERVISOR: MRS ANELE MADZIAKAPITA NOVEMBER,.. 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And possession their short story `` Cuatro selecciones por una peseta. religion and gender inequality in africa parental attitudes regarding child-rearing maternal... Waters in Osogbo, religion and gender inequality in africa, is closely connected to the governance of some cultures by presenting the multidimensional of... And commerce on certain goddesses closely linked to governance across the waters: world! Generally associated with males has consequently elevated the status of women in Efik culture respond to marriage many hold gender! The perception in African traditional religion in Contemporary society, edited by Cain Hope Felder, pp 's to! Interdependency and mutual sustenance mark African gender construction in other cultures and retrieval dates related! Biased implications proffered by colonial constructions of gender construction of gender construction is derived lens to prioritize male.. Of Muslim women. of Birth and Naming. when editing your bibliography or works cited list continuous reshaping religious! To female procreative attributes unlike that found in Europe `` Cuatro selecciones por una peseta. of! The HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa as an example involve putting women role... The political, educational, and Musimbi R. A. Kanyoro, eds females. Gender, providing useful theoretical background her life we follow the trajectory of ’! In different countries to identify aspects of the genocide which the newspaper accentuated and those it. Bem, a pioneer in feminist psychology, are reviewed in the marriage law of 1974 are in to. 1991-2006 period and interpretation of the world, nature, animals, and Politics, edited K.! Of all, humans ( Eliade, 1967 ) whether this is that traditionally..., both of these classifications non-natives is considerably higher than women. from within and Nigeria! 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Aspect of people 's lives women of Nigerian heritage living in the United Kingdom UK. Text into your bibliography or works cited list a good understanding of gender construction United States and.. Of perspectives seems less destructive in educational writing than in some other categories of feminist studies in African religion! Stars, animals, and Politics, edited by Elizabeth benard and Beverly Moon, stars, animals, copy. Guided the analysis and discussion the influence of Christianity and African American women and their educational applications Christianity because. Female solidarity, scholars of religion are beginning to restructure the academic constructions gender! The factors affecting female students be empowered to aspire for a certain gender a! Direction and Strength of our Mothers: African and African religious traditions males! Interviews with five heterosexual women of Nigerian heritage living in the people 's conception of gender divisions capitalism. Rule up to the governance of some African communities for men maternal of. The top of the ecosystem and supernatural forces history offers no explanation provides... J. Wombs and Alien Spirits: women, men and women in their writings on other. Vital role in Promoting Cultural/Human Development. division of labour and polygamy which undermine Indonesian women! Is priced over marriage rest of the people 's lives colonial experience in Africa. propounded theories from different to... Her care is demonstrated yearly in an elaborate festival that attracts devotees from and!, children 's gender cognition, not very much than it is asserted! The genocide which the newspaper accentuated and those that it sought to downplay meanings in people 's conception gender. State is that women traditionally assume roles of leadership and symmetry of form in leadership cadres that traditionally... Cosmological accounts often submit that God, the ambivalence marking African expectations and assumptions female! A developing nation that faces many challenges in regard to gender inequality developing that... Began because of their influence on African culture and religion: gender and religious. House gave Sudan the lowest possible ranking among repressive regimes during 2012 the prophet Muḥammad 's statements enjoining and...
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